Sustainable Process Engineering Research Center (SPERC) | FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
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Sustainable Process Engineering Research Center (SPERC)




Sustainable Process Engineering (SPE) is a multidisciplinary approach and is relevant to a wide range of industrial sectors. It impacts on each step in the production, manufacture and use of materials and chemical feedstocks and recovery & disposal of wastes. The sustainable processing of materials requires a wide understanding of chemical processes, and of the required energy and utilities supporting them. It includes the development of future process technology, the use of alternative resources or new reaction routes, and the design and operation of systems such that they use energy and resources more sustainably.


The overall goal SPERC focus on a whole systems approach can support understanding of the environmental, safety, economic, social and sustainability aspects of new technologies and processes, and can include entire product life cycle management, material reuse and waste reduction. By applying a system understanding, policies and interventions can be explored that would support embedding sustainable technologies in existing systems at different scales (single organizational, local and national).


The research niche areas includes a broad range of activities such as utilization of the renewable feedstocks; the development of novel routes for production of chemicals (i.e  the use of catalysis and bio-catalysis; biomass conversion and bio-refining, process intensification, nanotechnology, and the development of renewable and low carbon energy) and emphasize on industrial reliability ( design, modeling, optimization and control). It also includes assessment of the sustainability of products and processes in terms of environmental, social and economic studies.  is developing newer, greener and more efficient processes for diverse applications. Our


Recognizing the agricultural sector as the main key sector in Malaysia, ensuring that these materials conversion is economically, environmentally and socially sustainable is the core focus of the proposed research centre. With a multidisciplinary of an integrated specialist team that draws experts together from chemical engineering, environmental, and computer engineering combining their resources and skills in order to meet the industrial and environmental challenges of the new millennium, SPERC can be one of the focus areas in strengthening the research activities and productivity in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM).




Developing solutions towards sustainable Energy and environmental, socioeconomic challenges


  • To develop relationships with the key stakeholders such as governments, communities, non-governmental (NGOs) and industries in order to develop a strategy for application of basic and applied research in areas of proposed niche areas.


  • To strengthen research networking within the universities, communities & industries through various collaborations, projects, research grants and consultations both locally & internationally.


  • To strategize and generate the research activities and consultations works between the universities, industries & communities thus greater impact through this symbiosis.


  • To develop scholars and credible experts which are in line with the status of UPM as the lead university in the niche areas.



  1. Renewable feedstocks/products (synthesis, characterization & recoveries)
  2. Innovative processes/technologies development (thermal, bioprocess, catalytic, electrochemical, etc)
  3. Industrial Realiability ( prosess design, optimization & simulation, process safety)
  4. Sustainability ( environmental, social-economic studies)



  1. Prof. Ir. Wan Azlina wan ab karim ghani
  2. Dr. Robiah yunus
  3. Dr. Luman chuah Abdullah
  4. Dr. Thomas choong shean yaw
  5. Prof. Dr. Mohamad amran mohd salleh
  6. prof. Dr. Salmiaton Ali


  1. Dr. Azni Idris
  2. Prof. Dr. Mohd Razif Harun
  3. Prof. Dr. Rozita Omar
  4. Dayang radiah Awang Biak
  5. Nur Syakina Jamali
  6. Mohd Syazaruddin Mat Said
  7. Nik Norliyana Nik Ibrahim



  1. Gas Chromatography with Automated Thermal Desorber for VOC
  2. Gas Chromatography with TCD and FID Detector
  3. FTIR (functional group detection)
  4. HPLC System
  5. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy – surface morphology)
  6. Bomb Calorimeter (calorific value)
  7. Thermogravimetric Analyzer (proximate analysis)
  8. Differential Scanning Calorimeter
  9. ICP-AES & AAS (metal determination)
  10. And others





Project Leader

Research Title

Approved Amount




Grant Name


Wan Azlina

Wan Abdul

Karim Ghani

Understanding Of Biomass And Energy-Food-Environmental-Water (BEFEW) Nexus





Wan Azlina

Wan Abdul

Karim Ghani

Simultaneous Sox-Nox Removal Using Impregnated Metal Oxide



Geran Putra


Thomas Choong Shean Yaw, Omale Sunday Ogakyu

Carbon Idoxide Sequestration By Direct Mineral Carbonation Using Malaysa Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Slags



Geran Putra


Thomas Choong Shean Yaw, Lee Siong Hoong

Horizontal Separator Performace Study



Geran Putra


Luqman Chuah Abdullah@Chuah Teong Guan, Thomas Choong Shean Yaw,

Synthesis Of Spherical Nanocellulose -Nano Silver Hybride



Geran Putra


Mohamad Amran Bin Mohd Salleh, Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim Ghani, Azni Idris

Enhanced Pyrolysis Using Biomass Microwave Carbonizer (Bmc) To Convert Palm Oil Biomass (Empty Fruit Bunch) Into Biochar As Alternaive Fuel Source



Geran Putra


Wan Azlina Binti Wan Ab Karim Ghani

Microwave-Derived EFB Biochar As Potential Solid Fuel For Power Generation



Geran Putra


Chuah Teong Guan @ Luqman Chuah Bin Abdullah

Particle Sizing, Mechanical, Mophological, Rheological  And Powder Behavior Or Mixing Of Methyl Ester Sulfonates Under High Shear Mixer



Geran Putra


Wan Azlina Binti Wan Ab Karim Ghani

Optimization Of Enzymatic Hydrolysis From Microalgae And Bioactive Peptide Fractionation Using Ultrafiltration Membrane As Antioxidants



Geran Putra


Robiah Binti Yunus

Crude Palm Oil Extraction System For High Oil Recovery



Smart fund




Title of Project/Programme



Menilai Sistem Pengeluaran Biochar Dan Activated Carbon

KNR Systems Inc. Korea


Biochar To Treat Contaminated Curcas Burial Site In Korea

Biochar Research Center, Kangwon University, Korea


Production, Characterization Of Biofuels From Selected Seeds Of Lagenaria Species

University Usmanu Danfodiyo, Nigeria


Design Small Scale Biochar Production System

Hakita Engineering Sdn. Bhd


Perunding Fermentation Processes For Johnson&Johnson

Olive Global Sdn. Bhd.


Committee Of International Biochar Institute Product Standardization And Definition

International Biochar Initiatives (IBI)


Memorandum Persefahaman (Mou)

Green Technology Corporation


Biochar Plant

Nasmech Technologies Sdn Bhd


Biochar Carbonization System

Majari Sdn Bhd


Municipal Solid Waste (Msw)

Characterization And Composition

Analysis From Jeddah Landfill, Saudi Arabia For The Proposed Development Of Waste To Energy Plant In Jeddah

Green Energy Sdn Bhd


Gasification Testing And Analyses On 1 Kw And 5kw Reactor

Crops for the future research centre


Design, Fabrication And Training Of 30KW Gasifier System For Power Generation

Crops for the future research centre


Design And Testing Of Gasification System For Eureka Synergy Sdn Bhd

Eureka Synergy Sdn Bhd


Understanding Biomass On Energy-Food-Environmental-Water Nexus (BEFEW)

University of Bath, UK, UKM, UTP, UNMC


Optimisation Of Biomass For Future Biorefineries



Biodisel Production From Fat Oil And Grease

Pakar Go Green Sdn Bhd



  1. M Javidi Gharacheh, M Khojastehpour, M Ebrahimi-Nik, WAWAK Ghani(2018),Theoretical and Experimental Study of Potato Shoot Gasification in Fluidized-and Fixed-Bed Gasifier, International Journal of Agricultural Management and Development, 8
  2. J Rambli, WAWAK Ghani, MAM Salleh(2018),Characterization of Sago-based Biochar as Potential Feedstock for Solid Fuel,Journal of Energy and Safety Technology (JEST) 1 (2)
  3. K Silas, WAWAK Ghani, TSY Choong, U Rashid (2018), Activated carbon monolith Co3O4 based catalyst: Synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies, Environmental Technology & Innovation 12, 273-285
  4. K Silas, WAWAK Ghani, TSY Choong, U Rashid (2018), Breakthrough studies of Co3O4 supported activated carbon monolith for simultaneous SO2/NOx removal from flue gas,Fuel Processing Technology 180, 155-16
  5. NSN Shaharum, HZM Shafri, W Ghani, S Samsatli(2018),Mapping of the distribution of oil palm using Landsat 8 data by comparing machine learning and non-machine learning algorithms, Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science
  6. N Fuad, R Omar, S Kamarudin, R Harun, A Idris, WW Azlina(2018), Effective use of tannin based natural biopolymer, AFlok-BP1 to harvest marine microalgae Nannochloropsis sp.,Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (4), 4318-4328
  7. AN Farhana, AB Alias, N Talib, ZA Rashid, WAWAK Ghani(2018),Ciri-ciri gabungan biochar dari sekam padi dengan abu terbang arang batu sebagai potensi bahan penjerab, Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences 22 (2), 326-332
  8. M Ngabura, SA Hussain, WAWA Ghani, MS Jami, YP Tan(2018),Utilization of renewable durian peels for biosorption of zinc from wastewater Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 6 (2), 2528-2539
  9. NH Meri, AB Alias, N Talib, ZA Rashid, W Ghani(2018),Comparison of H2S adsorption by two hydrogel composite (HBC) derived by Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) biochar and Coal Fly Ash (CFA)
  10. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 334 (1), 012038
  11. M Ngabura, SA Hussain, WAWAK Ghani, MS Jami, YP Tan(2018),Optimization and activation of renewable durian husk for biosorption of lead (II) from an aqueous medium, Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology
  12. NSN Shaharum, HZM Shafri, W Ghani, S Samsatli, B Yusuf (2018),Image classification for mapping oil palm distribution via support vector machine using Scikit-learn module,International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial mapping
  13. H Madzaki, WAWAK Ghani, TCS Yaw, U Rashid, N Muda(2018),Carbon Dioxide Adsorption on Activated Carbon Hydrothermally Treated and Impregnated with Metal Oxides, Jurnal Kejuruteraan 30 (1), 31-38
  14. NH Abdullah, K Shameli, EC Abdullah, LC Abdullah(2018),Solid matrices for fabrication of magnetic iron oxide nanocomposites: Synthesis, properties, and application for the adsorption of heavy metal ions and dyes,Composites Part B: Engineering
  15. R Zolfaghari, LC Abdullah, DRA Biak, S Radiman(2018), Cationic Surfactants for Demulsification of Produced Water from Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding,Energy & Fuels
  16. M Abdullah, RA Majid, LC Abdullah, MF Abdul-Wahab, M Aziz(2018),Functionalization of polyacrylonitrile-grafted cellulose with amidoxime and its antimicrobial property,AIP Conference Proceedings 2045 (1), 020042
  17. S Saalah, LC Abdullah, MM Aung, MZ Salleh, DRA Biak, M Basri(2018),Colloidal stability and rheology of jatropha oil-based waterborne polyurethane (JPU) dispersion,Progress in Organic Coatings 125, 348-357
  18. F Ghaemi, LC Abdullah, H Kargarzadeh, MM Abdi, NFWM Azlin(2018),Comparative Study of the Electrochemical, Biomedical, and Thermal Properties of Natural and Synthetic Nanomaterials,Nanoscale research letters 13 (1), 112
  19. N Othman, M Masarudin, C Kuen, N Dasuan, L Abdullah(2018), Synthesis and Optimization of Chitosan Nanoparticles Loaded with L-Ascorbic Acid and Thymoquinone,Nanomaterials 8 (11), 920
  20. SY Lee, LC Abdullah, RA Rahman, F Abas, WK Tan, GH Chong(2018), Solution enhanced dispersion by supercritical fluids (SEDS): An approach in particle engineering to modify aqueous solubility of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculate,Chemical Engineering Research and Design 138, 176-18
  21. AMRN Alrashidi, NM Adam, AA Hairuddin, LC Abdullah(2018), A review on plasma combustion of fuel in internal combustion engines,International Journal of Energy Research 42 (5), 1813-1833
  22. A Ali, CH Chong, SH Mah, LC Abdullah, TSY Choong, BL Chua(2018),Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Predominant Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Piper betle Extracts Molecules 23 (2), 484
  23. TSY Choong, CM Yeoh, ET Phuah, WL Siew, YY Lee, TK Tang(2018),Kinetic study of lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis of palm olein using Lipozyme TLIM in solvent-free system,PloS one 13 (2), e0192375
  24. Ferial Ghaemi, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Hanieh Kargarzadeh, Mahnaz M Abdi, Nur Farhana Waheeda Mohd Azli, Maryam Abbasian (2018), Comparative Study of the Electrochemical, Biomedical, and Thermal Properties of Natural and Synthetic Nanomaterials, Nanoscale research letters,13(1)
  25. Siti Hasnah Kamarudin, Luqman Chuah Abdullah, Min Min Aung, Chantara Thevy Ratnam, Emiliana Rose Jusoh(2018), A study of mechanical and morphological properties of PLA based biocomposites prepared with EJO vegetable oil based plasticiser and kenaf fibres, International Journal of Energy Research, 42(5)
  26. IJ Idan, LC Abdullah, TSY Choong, SNABM Jamil(2018),Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic adsorption studies of acid dyes on adsorbent developed from kenaf core fiber,Adsorption Science & Technology 36 (1-2), 694-712
  27. SH Lee, TSY Choong, LC Abdullah, ZH Ban(2018),Experimental and CFD Modelling: Impact of the Inlet Slug Flow on the Horizontal Gas–Liquid Separator,Energies 12 (1), 1-32
  28. LJ Wei, OT Haan, TCS Yaw, LC Abdullah, T Cionita, A Toudehdehghan(2018),Heavy metal recovery from electric arc furnace steel slag by using hydrochloric acid leaching, E3S Web of Conferences 34, 02007
  29. RMHR Shahruzzaman, A Salmiaton, R Yunus, YH Taufiq-Yap(2018),Modified local carbonate mineral as deoxygenated catalyst for biofuel production via catalytic pyrolysis of waste cooking oil,AIP Conference Proceedings 2030 (1), 020006
  30. H Abd Hamid, R Yunus, U Rashid, TSY Choong, S Ali, AM Syam(2018),Synthesis Study of High Oleic Palm Oil-based Trimethylolpropane Triesters: Response Surface Methodology Based Optimization,CHIANG MAI JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 45 (2), 984-996
  31. L Jassim, R Yunus, SA Rashid, A Salleh(2018),Potential of Ethylhexyl Ester Oil to Enhance Drilling of HTHP Wellbores,Engineering and Technology Journal 36 (1 Part (C)), 30-37
  32. Bashir, M.T., Salmiaton, A., Idris, A., Harun, R.(2018), Monitoring kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of fluoride adsorption from aqueous solution by pks-based anion resins, Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences,12(2), pp. 3624-3632
  33. Mageed, A.K., Dayang Radiah, A.B., Salmiaton, A., Izhar, S., Razak, M.A.(2018), Study the Thermal Stability of Nitrogen Doped Reduced Graphite Oxide Supported Copper Catalyst, Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences,12(2), pp. 3624-3632
  34. Shahruzzaman, R.M.H.R., Salmiaton, A., Yunus, R., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.(2018), Modified local carbonate mineral as deoxygenated catalyst for biofuel production via catalytic pyrolysis of waste cooking oil, AIP Conference Proceedings, 2030,020006
  35. Hafriz, R.S.R.M., Salmiaton, A., Yunus, R., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.(2018), Green Biofuel Production via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil using Malaysian Dolomite Catalyst, Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis,13(3), pp. 489-501
  36. Ali, A., Chong, C.H., Mah, S.H., Choong, T.S.Y., Chua, B.L.(2018), Impact of storage conditions on the stability of predominant phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of dried piper betle extracts, Molecules,23(2),84
  37. Idan, I.J., Abdullah, L.C., Choong, T.S.Y., Jamil, S.N.A.B.M.(2018), Equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic adsorption studies of acid dyes on adsorbent developed from kenaf core fiber, Adsorption Science and Technology,36(1-2), pp. 694-712
  38. Hoh, K.-F., Syam, S., Phuah, E.-T., Choong, T.S.-Y.(2018), Computer modelling of phase change materials using the orthogonal collocation method, ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences,13(11), pp. 3617-3625
  39. Lee, S.H., Choong, T.S.Y., Abdullah, L.C., Razak, M.A., Ban, Z.H.(2018), Experimental and CFD Modelling: Impact of the inlet slug flow on the horizontal gas-liquid separator, Energies,12(1),41
  40. Agudosi, E.S., Salleh, M.A.M., Abdullah, E.C., Khalid, M., Azni, A.A.(2018), Characterization of crystallized struvite on wastewater treatment equipment: Prospects for crystal fertilizer production, Desalination and Water Treatment,113, pp. 205-212
  41. Cretescu, I., Harja, M., Teodosiu, C., (...), Sluser, B.M., Salleh, M.A.M.(2018), synthesis and characterisation of a binder cement replacement based on alkali activation of fly ash waste, Process Safety and Environmental Protection,119, pp. 23-35
  42. Yu, K.L., Show, P.L., Ong, H.C., (...), Chen, W.-H., Salleh, M.A.M.(2018), Biochar production from microalgae cultivation through pyrolysis as a sustainable carbon sequestration and biorefinery approach, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy,20(9), pp. 2047-2055








Meeting with Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Research)R


Potential collaboration discussion with TNBR


Networking sessions ARPOS


Potential collaborators for research


Writing workshop, Bangi


Publications planning & paper writing


MPOB-UKM Mini Seminar, bangi


Research collaboration & networking


Oxford & Bath workshops & visit


Promotions, research networking & collaborations


MRUN-MTUN-MCUN research proposal


Proposal submissions


Lafarge meeting


Potential collaborators for research


Stakeholder engagement meeting

(SEDA, KETTHA, DOE, SIRIM, etc), Dorsett, Putrajaya




Cinergi visit (luqman, wan, din, kina)


Potential collaboration discussion


Awards : KANS award, Iran


Research recognition


BEFEW conference (workshop, conf, visit)


Research collaboration & networking , engagement, dissemination & publications




Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr Wan Azlina Wan Ab Karim Ghani

Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering

Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia

43400 UPM, Serdang

Tel : 603-9769 6287  Fax : 603-86567120

email :

Updated:: 17/07/2019 [amirahsyahira]


Universiti Putra Malaysia
43400 UPM Serdang
Selangor Darul Ehsan